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賀氏英文法全書

b 賀氏英文法全書 a

發行網站:http://www.englishgrammar.com.tw

顧問:賀氏英文法全書作者

發行者:Sunny

賀立民    教授

E-mailtopho@kimo.com.tw

發報日期:2001.11.11

發報頻率:每週日發刊   (28)

三個字片語介詞  (除了冠詞即是三個字)  

(續上期)

25. By dint of (由於, 憑藉)──相當於"by means of, by (or in) virtue of"
He succeeded by dint of hard work.
(
他憑苦幹成功的。)

    第一篇   英文法的輪廓 (Outline)

    第四章 句子 (Sentence)

(續上期)

4.

獨立註釋  (Independent Comments)

獨立註釋是說者對於自己敘事時 "所持的態度" 加以註解,這種註解與其表達的主題無關,而且註解的用語與句中其他部分也無文法上的關連,所以稱為獨立註釋。

前文曾經提過,"任何一個字在句子裡都有其文法上的功用。" 準此而言,獨立註釋在句中也該有其文法功用,此一功用為何 ?  文法家將其定位于全句的修飾語,亦即修飾全句的副詞 (Sentence Adverb)。

由於獨立註釋並非在敘述的主題之內,應屬於非必要的成分 (即使省略了也不致影響全句的原義),按道理講在句子裡應該用逗點分開,然而就使用的實例觀之,情形未盡一致,部分作者並不遵循原則使用逗點,對於一個單字的獨立註釋尤其如此。有的認為他所使用的這種詞語已和全句融合在一起而不需要逗點,有的則認為其所用的詞語本身需要加強語氣而不用逗點,又有的說詞則是將原本修飾動詞的副詞移至句首以加強語氣而不用逗點。公說公的理,婆說婆的理,吾等局外人實無法也無必要深究其理,只好無奈地容忍其各自的道理或歪理,畢竟,我們是在學習人家的語言! 無論如何,遵循以下的原則是比較安全的:

A.

插入句中時即成為插語 (interpolation),前後都該有逗點 (參閱 p.75)

(1) 

There is, no doubt, a reasonable explanation for his behavior toward her.
(毫無疑問,他對她的行為是合情合理的。)

There is no doubt about her honesty.  (她的誠實不容置疑。)

no doubt 是本句的主詞,不可缺少的成分,不可用逗點分開。

(2)

It is, of course, your prerogative to change your mind.
(當然,你有權改變主意。)

It is of course my prerogative to change my mind.
(我當然有權改變主意。)

本句裡的 of course 是修飾 is 必要的部分,要重讀。

(3)

He understands, certainly, that the job is only temporary.
(當然,他知道這分工作只是暫時的。)

He understands certainly (or certainly understands) that the job is only temporary.
(他當然知道這分工作只是暫時的。)

這個句子裡的certainly 是修飾動詞understands的,本來應該放在受詞之後,可是因為受詞是個子句,太長,情非得已而放在動詞之後或前 (參閱 p.489 "討論")。

B.

置於句尾時前面有逗點

(1)

It is your prerogative to change your mind, of course.
(你有權改變主意,當然。)

(2)

To lie quiet in bed is the best treatment for him, in my opinion.
(靜躺在床上對他是最好的療法,在我看來。)

(3)

I'd rather not attend her reception, to be frank about it.
(我寧願不參加他的招待會,坦率地說。)

C.

置於句首或第二個獨立子句之首時後面有逗點。  如:

(1)

To tell (you) the truth, I didn't have so much money as you needed.
(說真的,我沒有你所需要的那麼多錢。)

or:

I didn't have so much money as you needed, to tell (you) the truth.
(我沒有你所需要的那麼多錢,說實話。)

(2)

The job seemed to have no future, and to tell the truth, the salary was pretty low.
(這工作似乎沒有前途,而且說實話,工資又很低。)

(3)

To be perfectly frank, you're not a good driver.
(非常坦率地說,你不是位好司機。)

(4) To cut a long story short, we said "No!"

(長話短說,我們說"不!")

(5)

After all, you have done more for him than he had any right to expect.
(畢竟,你為他做的超過了他有權期望的。)

(6)

In that idea, you're mistaken.  (關於那一點,你誤會了。)

(7)

In the first place, they don't have sufficient capital.
(首先,他們沒有足夠的資金。)

(8)

Personally, I would rather stay home and watch TV.
(就我個人而言,我寧願待在家裡看電視。)

Mother called on our teacher personally.
(母親親自拜訪了我們的老師。)

這個句子裡的 personally 是修飾動詞 called on 的,意思是 "親自",相當於 in person。

(9)

Obviously, he was moved by her entreaties.
(顯然,他被她的懇求打動了。)

Obviously moved by her entreaties, he drove her home in spite of all her faults.
(他顯然被她的懇求打動了, 於是既往不咎,開車載她回家。)

本句裡的obviously 並非修飾全句的獨立註釋,而是修飾作形容詞用的過去分詞moved,後面不可有逗點。

(10)

Unfortunately, she lost her only son in the railroad accident.
(很不幸,在那次火車事故中她失去了唯一的兒子。)

(11)

No, I don't believe!  (不,我不信!)

(12)

Yes, indeed, I should like very much to go with you.
(確實,我很想和你一起去。)

D.

諸如 perhaps, possibly, no doubt 這類表示推測的詞語以及 of course 之後的逗點常被省略。  如:

(1) Perhaps Father will be home early today.

(也許父親今天會早回家。)

(2)

The situation is so serious that perhaps bankruptcy may be the only solution.
(事態如此嚴重,也許破產是唯一的解決辦法。)

(3)

If indeed they want to settle the dispute, why don't they agree to arbitration?
(真的,如果他們想要解決此一爭端,他們為什麼不同意仲裁?)

(4)

No doubt he meant well.(無疑地,他是好意。)

He meant well, no doubt.  (他是好意,這一點我確信無疑。)

no doubt 放在句尾時,前面的逗點不可省略 (參閱 p.165-11)

()

放在句首修飾動詞的副詞之後不可誤以為是獨立註釋而加上逗點。  如:

(1) Lately I saw the book on the shelf.

(前不久,我看到這本書在書架上。)

本例中 lately 的意思是"不久前,最近",相當於 not long ago, a short time ago,修飾動詞 saw 的。

(2) Very often I feel like giving up smoking.

(我時常想要戒煙。)

feel like 相當於 have a desire for, be inclined for,含義是 "想要"。

very often (時常) 是修飾動詞 feel like 的。

(3)

Many a time the poor old man didn't know where his next meal was coming from.
(有很多次這位可憐的老人不知道下一餐要從哪裡來。)

many a time = many times (許多次),參閱 p.205。

(4)

Angrily he threw the ball; loudly he shouted.
(他怒氣衝天地把球扔過去;大聲叫了起來。)

Angrily 和 loudly 是分別修飾其所屬子句裡的動詞 threw 和 shouted 的。

Wish you all the best. 

下期內容 : 第四章        17.句子的基本型式

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賀氏英文法全書