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b 賀氏英文法全書 a

b 賀氏英文法全書 a

發行網站:http://www.hosenglish.com.

顧問:賀氏英文法全書作者

發行者:Sunny

賀立民    教授

E-mailtopho2002@yahoo.com.tw

發報日期:2003.11.2

發報頻率:每週日發刊   (129)

篇   形容詞KindsC

 章   應予留意與易於混淆的形容詞

(續上期)

6.

wide, broadC

1.

說某物有多少寬度時,wide 與 broad 通用。   如:

(1)

The desk is three feet wide (or broad).(這張桌子三呎寬。)C

(2)

That's a river fifteen feet broad (or wide).
(那是一條十五呎寬的河。)C

2.

指狹長形的物體 (如街道、河流等) 的 "寬" 通常用wide;broad是加強 wide 語氣的字,所以若要表示 "寬廣的"、"遼闊的" (如田野、河谷、陸地、海洋等),該用 broad。在正式的場合或在文學體裁中,broad也常用在 rivers 和 streets 之前,以描述相當寬的河流與街道。  如:C

(1)

One path was so narrow that only one person could walk in it. The other was wide enough for two people to walk side by side.C
(其中一條小路很窄,只能一個人走,另一條的寬度可以讓兩個人並肩而行。)D

"one...; the other..."是指兩者中的"一個…,另一個…"(參閱 p.305)C

(2)

The car's too wide to go into the garage.
(這輛車太寬,開不進這間車庫。)C

(3)

We spent the summer in a cottage on a wide river.C
(我們是在一條很寬的河邊的一間小屋堳袡L了夏天。)

(4)

Across the broad valley of the Danube, the mountains look blue and mysterious in the distance.C
(這些山脈越過遼闊的多瑙河盆地遠遠望去顯得青翠而又神秘。)

()

若是指與地平線平行的(不是像河流、海洋兩邊有岸以及河谷兩邊有山的)遼闊,不用broad,用wide。  如:

We've been traveling on the wide plains of the west.C
(我們一直是在廣大的西部平原旅行。)C

3.

指嘴、眼等 "張開至最大的程度"用wide,指背、肩、胸的 "寬" 用broad。 wide 也可用作副詞、美語中偶爾也用 broad 代替。  如:

(1)

Open your mouth wide.(把嘴儘量張大。)C

(2)

We open the windows wide when we go to bed.C
(我們睡覺的時候都是把窗子大開著。)

(3)

She stared at him with wide eyes.(她睜大眼睛盯著他看。)C

(4)

He has a very broad chest (shoulder, back).
(他的胸〔肩、背〕部很寬。)C

(5)

When I went into her room, she was wide awake.C
(當我進入她的房間時,她完全醒著。)D

偶爾也有美國人用 broad awake。C

(6)

He was standing with his feet wide apart.
(他兩腳張開很大地站著。)D

最後兩句堛 wide 都是副詞,分別修飾形容詞 awake 和 apart。

4.

wide還可作 "廣泛的","多方面的" 講。如:C

(1)

His father's a man with wide interests.
(他的父親是個興趣廣泛的人。)C

(2)

He's a man of wide experience. I think he's equal to the task.C
(他是個經驗豐富的人,我想他能勝任此項工作。)C

5.

"wide of" 是 "離目標(話題等)很遠"。   如:

(1)

Your answer was wide of the mark.(你的回答離題太遠。)C

(2)

It's a guess wide of the truth.(這是猜測,遠非事實。)C

(3)

The shot went wide of the mark.(這一槍未能擊中。)C

6.

下列各語中的broad不要改成wide:

broad daylight (大白天) 

broad-minded (胸襟開闊的)C

broad hint (明顯的暗示)

broad-humor (粗鄙的幽默)C

broad outline (概略)

broad-views (寬大為懷)C

broad forehead (寬的前額)

broad-brow (寬的眉)C

7.

sick, illC

1.

sick 和 ill作 "生病的" 講時,英美的用法有異有同:C

A.

相異處

放在動詞之後或受詞之後做補語時,美語中 sick和 ill通用,英語中通常只用ill。  如:

(1)

 When people have measles, or any other disease, they are

 sick (or ill). (美)

 ill. (英)

(當人們得了麻疹,或任何其他疾病的時候,即是生病了。)C

(2)
 Her mother was  sick (or ill). (美)
 ill (英) 

 and she had to do the shopping, cooking and washing.

(她的母親病了, 她不得不買菜、做飯和洗衣服。)

shopping不限於 "買菜",但在本句媊隋邑R菜比較合於我們的語言習慣。C

B.

相同處

置於名詞之前作限定的用法時,英美都只用sick,不用ill。  如:C

(1)
 He made himself   sick(or ill) (美)
 ill (英)
 by looking after his

 sick(O)

 mother.

 ill(×)

(他因服侍他的生病的母親而使得自己累病了。 )C

(2)
 The

 ill(×)

 person has been

 sick (or ill) (美)

 for years.

 sick(O)

 ill (英)

(這個病人已經病了幾年了。 )

2.

sick另可作 "嘔吐"、"想吐"講, ill則不可。  如:

(1)

I feel sick. Where's the bathroom?(我想吐,浴室在哪裡?)

(2)

My mother often gets sick from riding in the car.(我母親時常暈車。)C

(3)

I'm never sea-sick.(我從來不暈船。)C

(4)

She was sick three times in the night.(夜埵o吐了三次。)C

3.

home-sick, love-sick等複合形容詞中的 sick 的含義是 "思念的"。   如:

(1)

A home-sick girl is one who longs to return home.
(想家的女孩是個渴望回家者。)C

(2)

A love-sick youth is one who is so much in love that he does not feel well.C
(害相思病的青年即是因戀愛而覺得身體不適的年輕人。)C

4.

sick of是 "厭倦", 相當於"tired of";sick for是"渴望,思念";sick with是"因…而可憐或不樂",後接疾病時是"患…病"。   如:

(1)

I'm sick of your complaining.(我討厭你訴苦。)

(2)

He's got sick of city life, and is now sick for his home in the country.
(他已經厭倦了都市的生活,現在思念他鄉下的家。)C

(3)

The girl is sick with longing to see her family.C
(這個女孩想見到她的家人想得好可憐。)D

"to long to+v."是"渴望要"。

(4)

Mother was sick with worry the night you were late coming home.C
(你遲回家的那天晚上媽媽擔心死了。 )C

(5)

John was sick with a high fever (=John had a high fever) last night.
(約翰昨天夜媯o高燒。)C

()

sick at heart是"傷心、失望",不是"患心臟病"。C

5.

sick可作名詞用,而且是複數,前面通常有the(指一切病人或某一地區或某一事件中的所有病人);也可以帶有表示不定數量的形容詞(如many)。 如C

(1)

The sick ought to be taken good care of.(病人應該受到好的照顧。)C

(2)

We visited the sick.(我們訪問了那些病人。)C

(3)

Many sick are cared for in hospitals.
(許多病人在各醫院堭筐治療。)C

6.

ill和sick一樣也可以放在名詞之前作限定的用法,但含義不同,sick是作"生病的"講,ill卻表示生病以外的其他"不好"的含義。   如:C

(1)

If you do ill deeds, you must expect to be punished.C
(假如你有不良的行為,你當然會受到懲罰。)C

(2)

Ill news runs apace.(壞事傳千裡。)C

(3)

It is an ill wind that blows nobody good.
(世上沒有對人人都不利的事。)C

ill health(不健康)

ill luck (or fortune)(霉運)

ill nature(性情乖戾)

ill will(惡意)

ill temper(壞脾氣)

an ill omen(惡兆)

ill fame (or repute)(惡名)

7.

ill還可作副詞用,修飾動詞。  如:C

(1)

A job ill done may be better than not done at all.C
(工作做的不好也許比根本不做要好。)C

(2)

We could ill afford the time and money.
(我們很難騰出時間也無力負擔這筆錢。)C

(3)

Don't speak ill of others behind their backs.(不要背後說人壞話。)

speak ill of 可換成 speak evil of, 意思都是 "說…的壞話"。

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賀氏英文法全書