[ 家電維修站 | 網頁DIY,虛擬主機 | 虛擬主機,網頁空間,網頁diy ]


輸入Email訂閱
以下為電子報內容
b 賀氏英文法全書 a

b 賀氏英文法全書 a

發行網站:http://www.hosenglish.com.

顧問:賀氏英文法全書作者

發行者:Sunny

賀立民    教授

E-mailtopho2002@yahoo.com.tw

發報日期:2003.12.21 

發報頻率:每週日發刊   (136)

篇   形容詞KindsC

  章   冠詞 (Article)

(續上期)

4.

由於形容詞片語或子句之修飾而成為有所指的名詞之前該有定冠詞 the。如:

(1)

He is the doctor whom I told you of yesterday.
(他就是我昨天跟你提起的那位醫生。)

(2)

Most of the books on the bookcase are novels.
(書架上的書大部分是小說書。)

(3)

The treacherous behavior of the young officer led to the death of many of his friends.
(這位年輕軍官的叛逆行徑導致他的很多朋友喪了命。)

5.

後面有修飾它的形容詞片語或子句的名詞之前不一定都有定冠詞 the

the是具有限定的或指明的作用,所以稱為定冠詞。前文曾說過,當說者首次提及某人或某物時,聽者並不知道是指何人或何物,屬於不定的,不可用定冠詞the;當說者再度提及時,聽者已知其何所指,所以用定冠詞 the。由此可知,說者所說和聽者所領悟的必定是相同的物件才能用定冠詞 the。請看下列諸例以及有關的說明:

(1)

Ask the woman in front of you to take off her hat.
(叫你前面那個女人摘下她的帽子。)

當我說了the woman in front of you,你立即知道我說的是哪一個女人,你我心目中所意指的是同一個女人,在這種情形下,需要用定冠詞 the。

(2)

This morning I saw a woman looking like your aunt.
(今天早晨,我看見了一個相貌像你阿姨的女人。)

當我說了 "相貌像你阿姨的女人",你並不知道我指的是哪一個女人,這個女人還是屬於不定的,不能用定冠詞 the。

(3)

This is the village in which I live.(這是我居住的村莊。)

This 這個字已經把 village 指明了,聽者也看到了,而且我住的村莊 (in which I live)只有這一個,獨一無二,所以用定冠詞 the。

(4)

I live in a village which is situated in a valley.
(我住在一個座落在山谷中的村莊裡。)

說者 "I" 當然知道是在哪一個 valley裡的哪一個 village,可是聽者無從知道,所以本句裡的 village 是屬於不定的,不能用定冠詞 the。

(5)

According to a newspaper article which I read, the police arrested the man who had robbed the First National Bank.
(據我讀過的報紙上的文章說,警方逮捕了那個搶劫第一國家銀行的人。)

我讀的 article 是哪一篇你並不知道,屬未定的,不能用定冠詞。

搶劫銀行的 man你早已耳聞,或我們曾經談到過,如今再度提到他,當然要用the。

(6)

The article written by the newspaper reporter was about road safety.
(由那位新聞記者寫的那篇文章是有關道路安全。)

哪一篇(article)? 就是我曾告訴你的那位新聞記者所寫的那篇文章,當然屬於指定的,所以該用定冠詞the。

(7)

Gossip which is repeated often becomes vicious.
(重複的說閒話往往變成了不懷好意。)

本例中的 gossip (閒話)並非指某一句特定的閒話,而指任何一句閒話,屬於不定的,不可用定冠詞 the。由於是不可數的名詞,也不能用不定冠詞 a。

(11)

His speech was interrupted by people who did not accept his theory.
(他的演講被不接受其理論的人打斷了。 )

不接受他的理論者是哪些人聽者並不知道,所以是未確定的 people,不能用定冠詞 the。

6.

雖然是首次提及,但說者認為聽者必定知其何所指,在這種情形下,被提及的名詞之前需要用the

(1)

Open the door, please.(請開門。)

說者認為聽者當然知其所指的是眼前關著的那扇門,所以前面必須用the。

(2)

We're going to the fruit market to buy watermelon and apples.
(我們要去水果市場購買西瓜和蘋果。)

(3)

My aunt was very much afraid of burglars and always locked up the house very carefully before she went to bed. She also took the precaution of looking under the bed to see if a burglar was hiding there.
(我姨媽很怕夜賊,她總是在就寢前非常仔細地把房門鎖好。她還檢查床下看看是否有賊藏在那兒以作為防備。)

house之前之所以有the是因為說者認為聽者或讀者當然知道是指他姑母所居住的那棟房屋,不可能是別的房屋。bed的情形也是如此。

(4)

The earth moves round the sun once a year.
(地球圍繞著太陽一年運轉一次。)

(5)

If the sky were to fall, we could catch plenty of larks.
(如果天塌了下來,我們就可以捉到很多百靈鳥。)

(6)

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
(日出於東落於西。)

(

)

以上 (4) 與 (5) 兩例中的the sun, the earth, the sky都是宇宙間的 "獨一無二" 的自然物體,此外還有 the moon(月亮),the stars(星系--只有一個星系),the equator(赤道),the North Pole(北極),the South Pole (南極),the universe(宇宙),the world(世界),只要說者一提及,聽者即知道指的是哪一個,所以都必須帶有定冠詞 the。(6)例中的表示方向或方位等名詞也都是 "獨一無二" 的,也都必須帶有 the (如有所有格則不用 the)。不過表示方向的名詞用作副詞時(修飾動詞),沒有冠詞。如:
Turn your face toward the sun as it comes up in the morning. Raise your left hand and it is pointing north. Raise your right hand, and it is pointing south.
(早晨太陽升起時, 面對太陽。伸起左手,便是指向北方。伸起右手, 便是指向南方。)

7.

用可數的名詞指整個的一類或指同類中的任何一個時,有三種表達的方式:(a) A(n)單數名詞,(b) 無冠詞的複數,(c) the單數名詞 (多用指某一類動物)--若是指發明或發現某物,通常都是用 "the 單數名詞"。如:

(1)

A dog is a faithful animal. 

or:

The dog is a faithful animal.

or:

Dogs are faithful animals.
(狗是忠實的動物。)

(2)

Darkness doesn't worry cats; cats can see in the dark.
(黑暗難不倒貓;貓在黑暗中看得見。)

(3)

Family hotels are hotels which welcome parents and children.
(家庭旅館是歡迎父母和孩子住的旅館。)

(4)

The postman's little boy says that he'd rather be a dentist than a physician, because dentists don't get called out at nights.
(那郵差的小男孩說他寧願做一名牙醫而不當內科醫生,因為牙醫不會在夜裡被叫出去急診。)

(5)

A good man won't be lonely.(好人不會寂寞。)

(6)

Compasses are used to tell directions, especially at sea and in the air.
(指南針是用於指明方向,特別是在海上和空中。)

(7)

The compass was invented by us Chinese.
(指南針是我們中國人發明的。)

(8)

The telephone is a most useful invention.
(電話是一種非常有用的發明。)

(9)

Galileo claimed that he had invented the telephone.
(伽利略宣稱他已經發明了電話。)

(10)

The whale is a mammal, not a fish, which is in danger of becoming extinct.
(鯨是哺乳動物,不是魚,正處於瀕臨滅絕的境地。)

(14)

Men and women have similar abilities and needs.
(男人和女人有相同的能力和需要。)

Share the beautiful things with those who are close to us.

    更多精采內容請參閱 :  http://www.hosenglish.com.

版權所有     請勿翻印

 

推 薦 報

PrettyCare-內外美

提供健康知識,建立正確觀念,您將更了解如何照顧自己。

多方面的美容護膚須知,由表至裡,為健康美麗加分

解決皮膚問題的網站 

http://www.prettycare.com


賀氏英文法全書