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賀氏英文法全書

b 賀氏英文法全書 a

發行網站:http://www.hosenglish.com.

顧問:賀氏英文法全書作者

發行者:Sunny

賀立民    教授

E-mailservice@hosenglish.com

發報日期:2005.6.27

發報頻率:每週發刊   (215)

第五篇      動   詞 

    第四章   動詞的時態 (Verb Tenses)

8.

過去完成式的用法:

1.

敘述在過去某時或某一事件以前的事情

續 上 期

2.

敘述過去某時已有過 (肯定) 或未有過 (否定) 的經歷或經驗:

(1)

I recognized him at once, for I had often met him before.
(我立刻認出了他,因為我以前時常遇見他。)

較:

I recognize him, for I have often met him before.

(2)

I did not know him, for I had never seen him before.
(我〔當時〕不認識他,因為我以前從來沒有見過他。)

較:

I do not know him, for I have never seen him before.

(3)

I knew him well, but I had seldom spoken to him.
(我〔當時〕對他知道得很清楚,但是我〔以前〕很少跟他說話。)

較:

I know him well, but I have seldom spoken to him.

(4)

Until then this country girl had never seen a train.
(直到那時這位鄉下姑娘還沒有看見過火車。)

(5)

I could answer the question easily, for our teacher had once told us a story about it.
(我很容易地就能回答這個問題,因為我們老師曾經對我們講過有關這個問題的故事。)

較:

I can answer the question easily, for our teacher has once told us a story about it.

(6)

I wondered if I had ever met him.
(我不知道我是不是曾經和他見過面。)

較:

I wonder if I have ever met him.

(7)

Had you ever been in Shanghai till then?
(到那時為止,你有沒有去過上海?)

較:

Have you ever been in Shanghai (till now)?

(8)

He did not heed my words though I had warned him several times.
(雖然我警告過他幾次,他還是不聽我的話。)

較:

He does not heed my words though I have warned him several times.

3.

敘述從過去某時以前開始一直繼續到此一時間的事情:

(1)

Everything had gone well up to that time.
(直到那時,一切都很順利。)

較:

Everything has gone well up to now.

(2)

He had been ill for a week when he was sent to hospital.
(他被送進醫院的時候,已經病了一個星期。)

較:

He has been ill for a week.

(3)

I was much grieved at his death; we had been good friends since our childhood.
(聽說他死了我很悲傷,我們自小就是好朋友。)

較:

We have been good friends since our childhood.

(4)

He said that he had lived in the country since he had come (or came) to Taiwan.
(他說他自來台灣就一直住在鄉下。)

since 子句裡用過去完成式 had come 是因為該動作發生在過去式的 said之前,可以用過去式 came 代替的原因是比較簡單,而且不可能引起誤解。

較:

He said, "I have lived in the country since I came to Taiwan."

(5)

It was a very expensive city. Before we had been there a week, we had spent all the money.
(那是一座高消費城市。我們在那兒待了不到一星期就把所有的錢都花光了。)

(6)

For thirty years he had worked harder than he needed (or had needed) to.
(有三十年之久,他一直工作得比他所必須的更辛苦。)

than 子句裡的過去完成式 had needed 可以而且最好用過去式代替 (參閱 p.593-2)

Every charitable act is a stepping stone toward heaven.

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賀氏英文法全書