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賀氏英文法全書

b 賀氏英文法全書 a

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顧問:賀氏英文法全書作者

發行者:Sunny

賀立民    教授

E-mailservice@hosenglish.com

發報日期:2006.1.2

發報頻率:每週發刊   (242)

第五篇      動      詞 

    第四章   動詞的時態 (Verb Tenses)

21.

過去完成式的要點提示:

1.

在敘述過去的事情之後又回顧到那過去以前的事情時,用過去完成式;如果按照時間的先後順序敘述過去的種種,都該用過去式。如:

(1)

a.

He met her in Nanjing in 1989. He had last seen her forty years before.  Her hair had been black then; now it was white.

(or: He met her in Nanjing in 1949 and again forty years later. Her hair, which had been black at their first meeting, was now white.)

(他一九八九年在南京見到了她。他上一次見到她是四十年前,當時她的頭髮是黑的,而這一次全白了。)

b.

He met her first in Nanjing in 1949, when her hair was black. He met  her again in 1989 (or He didn't meet her again till 1989). Her hair was now white.
(
他一九四九年在南京第一次見到了她,當時她的頭髮是黑的。一九八九年他再度見到了她,這時她的頭髮全白了。)

(2)

a.

I saw empty glasses and cups and realized that three people had been in the room.
(
我看見一些空杯子,意識到有三個人到這房間來過。)

b.

I heard voices and realized that there were three people in the next room.
(
我聽見人聲,意識到隔壁房間裡有三個人。)

(3)

a.

I felt pretty upset because of what Mary had said, but I tried not to think about it too much.
(
由於瑪麗所說的,我心裡很不舒服,可是我儘量不去多想它。)

b.

Mary said some rather horrible things to me; I felt pretty upset, but  tried not to think about it too much.
(
瑪麗說了一些令我很不愉快的事情,我心裡覺得很不舒服,但是我儘量不去多想它。)

(4)

a.

The servant concealed the plate which she had broken.
(
傭人把她打破的那個盤子藏了起來。)

b.

The servant broke the plate, and concealed it.
(
傭人把那個盤子打破了,並且把它藏了起來。)

(5)

a.

I lost the fountain-pen which I had bought.
(
我把我買的那枝自來水筆丟了。)

b.

I bought a fountain-pen, but lost it the next day.
(
我買了一枝自來水筆,可是第二天就把它丟了。)

(6)

a.

He arrived at 10:30. He had been told to wait in the VIP (= very  important person) lounge.
(
他十點三十分到達的。有人事先已通知他在貴賓室等候。)

b.

He arrived at 10:30  and was told to wait in the VIP lounge.
(
他十點三十分到達的。隨後叫他在貴賓室等候。)

2.

在不可能引起先後的誤解時,常用過去式代替過去完成式。如:

(1)

The examination was easier than we expected (or had expected).
(
這次考試比我們料想的容易。—— 料想在先,考試在後)

(2)

He was (or had been) a newspaper reporter before he became a businessman.
(
他在成為商人之前是一名新聞記者。)

(3)

After the guests left (or had left), I went to bed.
(
客人離開之後,我就上床睡覺了。)

以上兩例中的 beforeafter 已經表示出時間的先後。

3.

如果第一個動作發生後,隨即產生了第二個動作 (往往前者是因,後者是果),兩者都用過去式;如果第一個動作需要若干時間才能完成,而且有意強調該動作完成後才產生第二個動作,前者必須用過去完成式。如:

(1)

When he called her a liar, she smacked his face.
(
他說她是個騙子時,她就打了他一記耳光。)

(2)

When she heard the news, she burst into tears.
(
她聽到這消息時,失聲痛哭。)

(3)

When she saw the mouse, she screamed.
(
她看到那只老鼠時就尖叫起來。)

(4)

When the play ended, the audience went home.
(
演出結束後,觀眾就回家去了。)

(5)

Instantly (or As soon as) he saw the policeman, he ran away.
(
他一看到警察就跑掉了。)

(6)

When he had received all the visitors, he left the office.
(
他接待了所有的訪客後離開了辦公室。)

(7)

a.

As soon as it began to rain, we ran indoors.
(
一開始下雨我們就跑進室內。)

b.

As soon as his guests had drunk all his brandy, they left his house.
(
他的客人把他的白蘭地全部喝完後隨即離開他家。—— 強調已經喝完了才離開。)

God helps those who help themselves.

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賀氏英文法全書