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賀氏英文法全書

   賀氏英文法全書

發行網站:http://www.hosenglish.com.

顧問:賀氏英文法全書作者

發行者:Sunny

賀立民    教授

E-mailservice@hosenglish.com

發報日期:2007.10.1

發報頻率:每週一發刊   (332)

第五篇      動      詞 

    第八章  直接敘述與間接敘述 (Direct Speech and Indirect Speech)

二、間接敘述 (Indirect Speech or Reported Speech)

1.

間接敘述的定義

2.

直接敘述轉換成間接敘述時,連接詞之使用

3.

引述動詞之使用及其位置

4.

疑問句在間接敘述與直接敘述裡字序之不同

5.

直接敘述轉換成間接敘述時,人稱代名詞之改變

6.

直接敘述轉換成間接敘述時,this 和 these 之改變

7.

直接敘述轉換成間接敘述時,時間副詞與地方副詞之改變

8.

直接敘述轉換成間接敘述時,動詞的時態之變與不變

9.

引述動詞是過去式時,助動詞之變與不變

 

1.

原則上由現在式改為過去式。  如:

 

2.

若直接敘述裡所談的到現在引述時仍然是事實,間接敘述裡仍用現在式。  如:

 

3.

Shall I/we...? 有各種不同的含義,因此在間接敘述裡也有各種不同的改變:C

 

4.

must可以保持不變,但由於有多種作用,因而可能有其他詞語可以代替。C

 

5.

need 的變與不變:

 

6.

could 的變與不變

 

7.

should/ought to 的變與不變

 

8.

might 的變與不變

 

9.

had better/used to 保持不變

10.

表示 “命令、請求、勸告” 的句子之轉變

11.

示 “建議” 的祈使句或疑問句之轉變 —— 除了可以轉換成 that 子句外,也可以轉換成動名詞。  如:

12.

“let+O. (第三人稱)+無 to不定詞” 之轉變

13.

感歎句之轉變

 

 

 

 

續 上 期

14.

祈願句之轉變

 

間接敍述裡的引述動詞用 pray 或 wish,後接“that...might...”或“O.+to ∼”或“O.+名詞”。  如:

 

(1)

直:

He said, “God bless this child!”
(他說:“願上帝保佑這孩子!”)C

 

 

間:

He prayed that God might bless that child.

(他祈禱上帝保佑那孩子。)C

He wished to God that He might bless that child.

He prayed God to bless that child.C

 

(2)

直:

He said, “May you be happy!”
(他說: “祝你們快樂!”)C

 

 

間:

He expressed his wish that we might be happy. He wished us happiness.
(他祝福我們快樂。)C

 

(3)

直:

He said, “Good luck!”
(他說,“祝你好運!”)

 

 

間:

He wished me luck.
(他祝我好運。)C

15.

直接敘述裡的兩個敘述句或一個合句在間接敘述裡之轉變

 

直接敘述裡若是兩個敘述句,或是由對等連接詞 and 或 but 連接的兩個對等子句所組成的合句,在間接敘述裡即變成由and 或 but 連接的兩個 that 子句 (如He said that... and that...;He said that... but that...),其中的第一個 that 常被省略,第二個 that 通常都是保留的。  如:C

 

(1)

直:

He said, “ It must be pretty late. I really must go.”C
(他說, “現在一定不早了,我真的該走了。)C

 

 

間:

He said (that) it must be pretty late and that he really must (or had to) go.
(他說現在一定很晚了,他真的該走了。)C

 

(2)

直:

He said, “My father is a doctor. My mother is a teacher.”C
(他說, “我爸爸是醫生, 我媽媽是教員。”)C

 

 

間:

He said (that)  his father was a doctor and that his mother was a teacher.C
(他說他的父親是醫生,他的母親是教員。)C

 

(3)

直:

He said, “I'm excited about my new job, and I've found a nice apartment.”
(他說, “我對我的新工作感到非常滿意,而且我已經找到了一間很好的公寓。”)C

 

 

間:

He said (that)  he was excited about his new job, and that he'd found a nice apartment.
(他說他對他的新工作感到非常滿意,又說他已經找到了一間很好的公寓。)

 

(4)

直:

“You never listen to your mother,” she said in a complaining tone, “and it's a bit hard after all the trouble I've had bringing you up.”C
(“你們從不聽媽媽的,” 她以抱怨的聲調說, “而我費盡心血把你們扶養長大你們卻這 樣真令人有點痛心。”)C

 

 

間:

She complained to her children that they never listen to her and that it was a bit hard after all the trouble she had had bringing them up.C
(她向她的孩子們抱怨說他們從不聽她的,並且說她費盡了心血把他們扶養長大他們居然這樣真令她有點痛心。)

 

 

 

本例中的 trouble 之後省略了做 have had (had had) 受詞的關係代名詞 that。此種 “have+O.+ing” 的結構可參閱 p.714 註。

 

(5)

直:

He said, “I'll come to the meeting but I can't stay for more than an hour.”
(他說, “我會來開會的,但是停留的時間不能超過一小時。”)C

 

 

間:

He said (that) he'd come (or go) to the meeting but that he couldn't stay for more than an hour.C
(他說他要來〔去〕開會,但停留的時間不能超過一小時。)C

 

()

直接敘述裡雖然是兩個單句,但兩者之間有因果關係時,間接敘述裡可以變成由一個主要子句 (表結果) 和一個從屬子句 (表原因) 所組成的複句,或由對等連接詞 for連接而成的合句 (但 for 之後不可有連接詞 that)。  如:C

 

 

直:

He said, “ Mary always gets the best grades in the class. She studies very hard.”C
(他說, “瑪麗在班上總是獲得最高分。她非常用功。”)C

 

 

 

間:

He said Mary always got the best grades in the class, because she studied very hard.C
(他說瑪麗在班上總是獲得最高分,因為她非常用功。)C

 

 

直:

“You'd better wear a coat. It's very cold outside,” he said.C
(“你最好穿上外套。外面很冷,” 他說。)C

 

 

 

間:

He advised me to wear a coat as it was very cold outside.C
(因為外面很冷他建議我穿上外套。)C

 

 

直:

“You'd better not walk across the park alone. People have been mugged there,” he said.
(“你最好別單獨穿越公園。有人在那兒被搶過,” 他說。)C

 

 

 

間:

He warned her not to walk across the park alone as people had been mugged there.
(因為有人在那兒被搶過他警告她別單獨穿越公園。)C

 

 

直:

He said to me, “It must have rained in the night. The ground is wet.”C
(他跟我說: “夜裡一定下雨了。地上是濕的。”)

 

 

 

間:

He told me that it must have rained in the night, for the ground was wet.
(他告訴我夜裡一定下雨了,因為地上是濕的。)C

 

 

 

 

for 子句是對於前面子句所作的推測提出 “證據”。

 

Prevention is better than cure.

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賀氏英文法全書